The concept of God (Allah) in Islam is enunciated by God Himself in His revelation, the Holy Qur’an. It is expanded upon by the Final Prophet of God, Muhammad [peace upon him and his household] and further clarified by the successor to the Prophet, the Imam Ali.
The concept of God (Allah) in Islam is enunciated by God Himself in His
revelation, the Holy Qur’an. It is expanded upon by the Final Prophet of God,
Muhammad [peace upon him and his household] and further clarified by the
successor to the Prophet, the Imam Ali.
The Holy Qur’an
Chapter: The Unity
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Say: He, Allah, is One.
Allah is He on Whom all depend.
He begets not, nor is He begotten.
And none is like Him.
Muhammad [pbuh], the Prophet of Islam
"Praise belongs to God, who in His firstness was solitary and in His
beginninglessness was tremendously exalted through divinity and supremely great
through His magnificence and power. He originated that which He produced and
brought into being that which He created without a model preceding anything that
He created. Our Lord, the eternal, unstitched (the heavens and the earth)
through the subtlety of His lordship and the knowledge within His omniscience,
created all that He created through the laws of His power, and split (the sky)
through the light of dawn. So none changes His creation, none alters His
handiwork, ‘none repels His law’ (XIII, 45) , none rejects His command. There is
no place of rest away from His call, no cessation to His dominion and no
interruption of His term. He is the truly existent from the first and the truly
enduring forever. He is veiled from His creatures by His light in the high
horizon, in the towering might, and in the lofty dominion. He is above all
things and below all things. So He manifested Himself to His creation without
being seen, and He transcends being gazed upon. He wanted to be distinguished by
the profession of Unity when He withdrew behind the veil of His light, rose high
in His exaltation and concealed Himself from His creation.
"He sent to them messengers so they might be His conclusive argument against His
creatures and so His messengers to them might be witnesses against them. He sent
among them prophets bearing good tidings and warning, ‘that whosoever perished
might perish by a clear sign, and by a clear sign he might live who lived’
(VIII, 42) and that the servants might understand of their Lord that of which
they had been ignorant, recognise Him in His Lordship after they had denied (it)
and profess His Unity in His divinity after they had stubbornly resisted."
Ali [as], the first Imam, successor to the Prophet
"Praise belongs to God, who did not originate from anything, nor did He bring
what exists into being from anything. His beginninglessness is attested to by
the temporality of things, His power by the impotence with which He has branded
them, and His everlastingness by the annihilation which He has forced upon them.
No place is empty of Him that He might be perceived through localization, no
object is like Him that He might be described by quality, nor is He absent from
anything that He might be known through situation.
"He is distinct in attributes from all that He has originated, inaccessable to
perception because of the changing essences He has created (in things), and
outside of all domination by changing states because of grandeur and
tremendousness. Forbidden is His delimitation to the penetrating acumen of
sagacities, His description to the piercing profundities of thought and His
representation to the searching probes of insight.
"Because of His tremendousness places encompass Him not, because of His majesty
measures gauge Him not, and because of His grandeur standards judge Him not.
Impossible is it for imaginations to fathom Him, understandings to comprehend
Him or minds to imagine Him. Powers of reason with lofty aspiration despair of
contriving to comprehend Him, oceans of knowledge run dry without alluding to
Him in depth , and the subtleties of disputants fall from loftiness to pettiness
in describing His power.
"He is One, not in terms of number; Everlasting, without duration; Standing,
without supports. He is not of a kind that other kinds should be on a par with
Him, nor an object that objects should be similar to Him, nor
like things that attributes should apply to Him. Powers of reason go astray in
the waves of the current of perceiving Him, imaginations are bewildered at
encompassing the mention of His beginninglessness, understandings are held back
from becoming conscious of the description of His power, and minds are drowned
in the depths of the heavens of His kingdom.
"He is Master over (giving) bounties, Inaccessable through Grandeur, and
Sovereign over all things. Time makes Him not old, nor does description
encompass Him. Humbled before Him are the firmest of obduracies in the limits of
their constancy, and submitted to Him are the most unshakeable of the cords in
the extremity of their towering regions .
"Witness to His Lordship is the totality of kinds, to His Power their
incapacity, to His eternity their createdness, and to His permanence their
passing into extinction. So they possess no place of refuge from His grasp of
them, no exit from His encompassing them, no way of veiling themselves from His
enumeration of them and no way of avoiding His power over them. Sufficient is
the perfection of His making them as a sign, His compounding of their (natural)
constitutions as a proof, the temporal origin of their natures as (a reason for
His) eternity, and the creation’s laws governing them as a lesson . No limit is
attributed to Him, no similitude struck for Him and nothing veiled from Him.
High indeed is He exalted above the striking of similitudes and above created
"And I testify that there is no god but He, having faith in His Lordship and
opposing whoso denies Him; and I testify that Muhammad (PBUH) is His servant and
messenger, residing in the best lodging-place, having passed from the noblest of
loins and immaculate wombs, extracted in lineage from the noblest of mines and
in origin from the most excellent of plantations, and (derived) from the most
inaccessible of summits and the most glorious roots, from the tree from which
God fashioned His prophets and chose His trusted ones: (a tree) of excellent
wood, harmonious stature, lofty branches, flourishing limbs, ripened fruit,
(and) noble interior, implanted in generosity and cultivated in a sacred
precinct. There it put forth branches and fruit, became strong and unassailable,
and then made him (the prophet Muhammad PBUH) tall and eminent, until God, the
Mighty and Majestic, honoured him with the Faithful Spirit , the Illuminating
Light , and the Manifest Book . He subjected to him Buraq and the angels greeted
him. By means of him He terrified the devils, overthrew the idols and the gods
(who were) worshipped apart from Him. His prophet’s Wont (sunnah)is integrity,
his conduct is justice and his decision is truth. He proclaimed that which was
commanded by his Lord , and he delivered that with which he was charged until he
made plain his mission through the profession of Unity and made manifest among
the creatures that there is no god but God alone and that He has no associate;
until His Oneness became pure and His lordship unmixed. God made manifest his
argument through the profession of His Unity and He raised his degree with
submission (al-islam). And God, the Mighty and Majestic, chose for His prophet
what was with Him of repose, degree and means – upon him and upon his pure
household be God’s peace."