The material civilization of today has solved many problems of human life, and has given man dazzling power to control nature. But at the same time it has so much eulogized and puffed the philosophy of having more and more, that it has made the man of our age a greedy animal, who is day and night worried about only increasing the production and consumption and thinks of nothing else. Materialism and too excessive concern about economic affairs have converted man into a machine. He is always busy with earning his livelihood or finding the means of leading a more and more luxurious life. This situation is so wide‑spread that the life of most of the men of our times is almost devoid of any other valuable content. There was a time when man valued his freedom most and even sacrificed his life for the sake of it. Now he has become a slave of production and consumption and has laid down his love of freedom at the altar of this deity.
From the point of view of the availability of the facilities of life, the man
of our age has reached a grand stage. The innumerable discoveries and inventions
have provided him such opportunities as previously appeared to him totally
The automatic appliances and electronic implements have made many such things
possible for the man of our age, which were hitherto impossible. By just
pressing a button he can obtain whatever he wants. Water, air, heat, cold, food
and clothing are all readily available for him.
Radio waves in the twinkling of an eye carry his voice to the farthest corner of
the world; not only his voice but his picture also.
The aircraft have subdued vastness of the space for him. With ease and speed he
flies from one side of the world to another, even more easily, more lightly and
to a greater distance than the legendary flying carpet.
The astronauts have opened the way for him to the planets, and now a journey to
the moon and other planets appears to be as simple as going from one city to
another neighboring city.
The new scientific and industrial discoveries have so expanded in our age that
it is difficult to enumerate them. It may be said that nature is now bent upon
disclosing in the shortest possible time to the man of our century all the
innumerable secrets which it held in its bosom for thousands of years.
As the result of his expanding acquaintance with the secrets of nature and his
marvelous discoveries in regard to the controlling and exploiting the natural
forces, the man of our age has reached the zenith of material well being and
has converted the whole earth into a well furnished and magnificent place for
his own benefit, in order to be able to lead a contented life and secure that
happiness of which he has always dreamt.
This was one side of the coin, but there is another side of it too. The material
civilization of today has solved many problems of human life, and has given man
dazzling power to control nature. But at the same time it has so much eulogized
and puffed the philosophy of having more and more, that it has made the man of
our age a greedy animal, who is day and night worried about only increasing the
production and consumption and thinks of nothing else. Materialism and too
excessive concern about economic affairs have converted man into a machine. He
is always busy with earning his livelihood or finding the means of leading a
more and more luxurious life. This situation is so wide‑spread that the life of
most of the men of our times is almost devoid of any other valuable content.
There was a time when man valued his freedom most and even sacrificed his life
for the sake of it. Now he has become a slave of production and consumption and
has laid down his love of freedom at the altar of this deity.
With the progress of material civilization, the consuming needs of man have
increased and the way of meeting them has grown complex to the extent that many
people sacrifice their physical and moral well‑being for achieving that end.
In the material society of today all higher human values have been set aside,
or, it may be said, that even moral values are looked upon only from material
angle. In most parts of the world the real infrastructure of education and
training is only material and aims at economic gain. The actual purpose of
framing any educational or training programme is only to produce men who can
provide better economic return for the pockets of others or sometimes for their
own pockets. The motto of every one, from a man in the street to the elite, has
become "achieve economic gain and material pleasures ensuing from it". The
specialists in higher intellectual and technical fields, the politicians, the
writers and the artists are no exception to this rule. Even many of those who
are devoted to higher spiritual questions have been affected by material and
economic attractions. Missionary work is performed mostly in exchange for
financial and material remuneration. This situation is the natural and
inevitable result of the diverse material philosophies prevailing during our
Day and night man is being told that he is no more than an economic animal, and
that wealth and economic prosperity are the sole criterion of good fortune and
the only sign of the progress of a nation, a class or a group. It is constantly
being drummed into the ears of people that money has a miraculous power and it
can solve every problem. There is always a talk of the heaps of money obtained
by chance or by directly or indirectly robbing the fellow human beings and spent
for satisfying the lowest animal desires. In these circumstances it is not
surprising that men or rather semi‑men of our age have turned into greedy
animals, bent upon acquiring money from whatever source they can and spending it
for obtaining the greatest possible pleasure. They have become the slaves of
production and consumption. Their life is bereft totally of the higher values
befitting a living human being, and has tended towards vulgarity and
Quest for the philosophy of life and its aim
It is a matter of great satisfaction that here and there some new voices have
arisen in this very world enamoured of production and consumption. They give
rise to the hope that perhaps time has come for the deliverance of the man of
our age from the shackles of this economic myth. It is more gratifying that
these voices pertain to the youth rather than the middle‑aged or the aged
For some time the youth throughout the whole world have been showing practical
reaction and saying loudly that they find their life meaningless and vulgar in
the magnificent palace which has been furnished for them.
They want to know:
If people generally are happy in this magnificent palace.
If the boat of their life filled with all sorts of comforts and travel equipment
shall carry them to the shore of peace and content.
Whether this splendid civilization attaches any importance to man himself.
Whether all the gadgets invented to facilitate life really serve man, or they
themselves have appropriated all his mental and physical capabilities.
Whether this splendid civilization which has so much reduced distance between
various cities, continents and planets, and converted them into just a big
house, has also brought the hearts of its inmates closer to each other, or in
spite of reduction in distances their hearts have gone further apart, or even
worse than that, they no longer possess any hearts, as man now has only brain
and hands exclusively devoted to serve his stomach, to satisfy his lust and to
help him seek pelf, position and similar other objects:
It is true that such voices strike only in the lands where people lead an
economically prosperous life and are not preoccupied with the worry of obtaining
such primary necessities as bread and butter.
It is also true that in most parts of the world there are still large masses of
people who are stricken with poverty and they themselves, their families, their
dependents and their neighbors are leading a life below subsistence level. Their
only hope now is a bloody revolution that may put an end to their material and
But the correct foresight makes it necessary that the efforts of these
under‑privileged people should be channeled in such a direction that they may
not have to face such a fate.
Anyhow, it is certain that the people have more or less awakened and have got
rid of the charm of material and economic prosperity. Both the big camps of the
modern world now see clearly that:
Though for centuries man has been making efforts to secure the best possible
means of living a better life, at present in both the big camps of the East and
the West men are being sacrificed ruthlessly in the grand industrial temples at
the feet of the deity of industry. Except empty slogans there is nothing left of
human dignity, human freedom and real choice in either of the two camps. Both
the systems have deprived man of his dignity on the pretext that that is the
requirement of the speedy running of the wheels of the complex modern industry
Anyway, the man of our age is no longer willing to be taught by means of
industry and technology how to lead his life.
He persistently insists that he should know what the aim of his life is.
Contrary to what the pessimists think, the voices which are now being raised in
protest or otherwise, may be a forerunner of the happy and propitious
self-realization. They may give rise to human self‑awakening and a renaissance
of human society. They may induce man not to take mechanical development for
human evolution, and to rediscover the real goal of his life with deeper
insight. They may lead him in the direction of real human bliss. What does the
Qur’an say in this respect?
The Qur’an emphasizes as a principle that all the pomp and show of life is
meaningless, if it is devoid of faith and spirituality and is not consistent
with the aim befitting a human being. A man enamoured of such a life is a loser
and all his efforts are in vain.
"Know that the life of this world is only a sport and pastime, pageantry and
cause of boasting among you, and a quest for more wealth and more children. It
is like the vegetation springing out after rain, delights the farmers, but it
withers and you see it turning yellow, and then becoming worthless stubble". (Surah
At another place Allah has been described as the light of the heavens and the
earth, the truth and the directing spirit of the whole world.
Then there is a mention of the meritorious and worthy men whom their trade and
the efforts to earn their. livelihood do not beguile into forgetting of Allah
and do not divert them from the basic goal of their life. They consequently
secure the best results. Their efforts are always fruitful and conducive to
virtue and excellence.
The Qur’an describes the fate of those who have no aim in life and are forgetful
"As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The
thirsty man thinks that it is water, but when he comes to it, he finds that it
is nothing. There he finds only. Allah, who pays him his account in full, and
Allah is swift at reckoning. Or as darkness in a deep ocean covered with dashing
waves and overcast with clouds. Several kinds of darkness, one upon another. If
one stretches his hand, he can hardly see it. Indeed the man from whom Allah
withholds His light, can find no light at all". (Surah al-Nur 24: 39-40).
Consider these verses well. They contain a truth, which has become far more
evident following the great scientific and industrial progress and the expansion
of the dimensions of human life.
Purely material life is as good as a mirage. The efforts of a greedy and
covetous man bear no fruit, for they are devoid of a direction and a meaning.
There is darkness all around. The people are puzzled and submerged in vulgarity.
The question still remains: What is the meaning of life and what is its goal?
According to the Qur’an the real cause of all this confusion and vulgarity is
that human life has been bereft of the element of iman and man is concentrating
his efforts on material progress. He has entered an era of production for
consumption and consumption for production. Such people may succeed to the
utmost degree in achieving their material ends but beyond that they fail in
securing what is worthy of a human being:
The Qur’an says:
"Those who want the life of this world and its pomp, shall be fully recompensed
according to their deeds during their lifetime. They shall not suffer any loss
here. But in the Hereafter they shall have nothing but the fire. All they have
done here shall have no value and all their deeds shall be null and void". (Surah
Hud, 11 : 15 ‑ 16).
Selected excerpt from
Philosophy of Islam by Shaheed Muhammad H. Beheshti and Shaheed Mohammad J.