The subject under discussion is the perfect man from the viewpoint of Islam. A perfect man means an exemplary human being, who is superior and exalted, or any other interpretation that one can make. Like everything else, a human being may be perfect or imperfect, and sound or defective. A sound person, too, may be both sound and perfect or sound and imperfect. To know a perfect or exemplary human being from the viewpoint of Islam is necessary for Muslims because it is like a model and example, by emulating which we can, if we wish, attain our human perfection under Islamic teachings. We should, therefore, know what a perfect man is, how he looks spiritually and intellectually, and what his peculiarities are, so that we may improve ourselves, our society and other individuals based on that model.
The subject under discussion is the perfect man from the viewpoint of Islam.
A perfect man means an exemplary human being, who is superior and exalted, or
any other interpretation that one can make. Like everything else, a human being
may be perfect or imperfect, and sound or defective. A sound person, too, may be
both sound and perfect or sound and imperfect.
To know a perfect or exemplary human being from the viewpoint of Islam is
necessary for Muslims because it is like a model and example, by emulating which
we can, if we wish, attain our human perfection under Islamic teachings. We
should, therefore, know what a perfect man is, how he looks spiritually and
intellectually, and what his peculiarities are, so that we may improve
ourselves, our society and other individuals based on that model. But if we do
not know what a perfect human being is in Islam, surely we cannot become a
perfect Muslim, or even a relatively perfect human being.
From the viewpoint of Islam, there are two ways of knowing a perfect person: One
way is to see how the Qur’an in the first place and tradition in the second
place have defined a perfect man, even if it is meant to be a perfectly faithful
and good Muslim. A perfect Muslim is a person who has attained perfection in
Islam; a perfect believer is one who has attained perfection in his faith. Now
we must see how the Quran and tradition have portrayed such a person and with
what peculiarities. As it happens, we have many things to quote from both of
The second way is to regard real individuals who are built up on the model of
the Qur’an and Islam, not an imaginary and idealistic being, but a real and
objective personality who exists in various stages of perfection at its highest
level or even at slightly lower stages.
The holy Prophet himself is an example of a perfect man in Islam. Imam Ali is
another example. To know Ali (as) is to know a perfect man, and that means to
know him thoroughly, and not only his name, lineage and apparent identity. We
may know that Ali is the son of Abu Talib and the grandson of Abdul-Mottalib,
and that his mother is Fatima, daughter of Assad-bin-Abdol-Ezi, and his wife is
Fatima Zahra (as) and he is the father of Hassan and Hossain, and at what dates
he was born and died, and what battles he fought etc. But this knowledge is only
about his apparent identity, and not about him as a perfect man. Recognition of
Ali means knowing his personality, rather than his person.
To the extent that we get acquainted with his whole personality, we will know
him as a perfect man of Islam; and to the extent that we take him as a model and
accept him in actuality and not literally as our leader and Imam, and follow and
emulate him, we will then be a Shi’a follower of this perfect man.
A Shi’a means one who accompanies Ali, not only with words and sentiments, but
with the act of following him in practice and act in philosophical and academic
These two ways of recognition of a perfect man are not only theoretically
useful, but we must also use this knowledge to follow the ways shown by Islam to
become a true Muslim and make society truly Islamic. The way is thus shown and
the result is explained.
But the question arises as to the meaning of ‘Perfect’. Some things may seem
obvious, but explicit things are sometimes harder to explain than difficult
In Arabic the two words meaning ‘Perfect’ and ‘complete’ are close to each other
but not exactly similar in meaning, and both of them have an antonym meaning
‘defective’. The difference between the two words is as follows: The word
‘complete’ refers to something which is prepared according to a plan, like a
house and a mosque, and if any part of it is unfinished, it is incomplete or
defective. But something may be ‘complete’ and yet there may exist a higher
degree of completion or many degrees higher than that, and that is called
‘perfection’. ‘Complete’ is a horizontal progress to maximum development and
‘perfect’ is a vertical climb to the highest degree possible.
When we speak of a ‘perfect wisdom or knowledge’, it refers to a higher degree
of an already existing wisdom or knowledge. A man may be complete in a
horizontal sense, without being perfect vertically. There are people who are
half-complete or even less than that. But when perfection is attained, there are
still higher levels of perfection until a perfectly perfect state is reached.
The term ‘perfect’ did not exist in Islamic literature until the seventh century
of the Hejira. It is now used frequently in Europe, but was first used in the
Islamic world by the well-known Gnostic "Mohyedin Arabi Andalusi Ta’i", who is
the father of Islamic Gnosticism, and many Islamic Gnostics, including Iranian
and Persian-speaking ones, and even Rumi, have been his pupils. Rumi with all
his greatness is small compared with Mohyedin in Gnosticism. He is of Arab
extraction and a descendant of Hatam Ta’i, from Andalusia, that is modern Spain.
He has traveled in Islamic countries and died in Damascus where he was buried.
He has a pupil called Sadredin Ghownawi who is rated second to his teacher as a
Gnostic. Islamic Gnosticism has been given a complicated form by Mohyedin and
commentaries of Sadredin. Rumi is a contemporary of the latter and his follower
through whom he imbibed the ideas of Mohyedin.
This man used the term "perfect man" from the special viewpoint of gnosticism,
but we intend to discuss it from the viewpoint of the Qur’an. We have human
beings who are physically sound or defective. But you do not consider blindness,
deafness, paralysis, or shortness as defects of virtue, personality or humanity.
For example Socrates, the famous Greek philosopher, who is sometimes rated as a
prophet, was a most ugly man, but this ugliness is not counted as a defect. Abol-Ala
Mo’arra, and Taha Hossain of our time were blind. Is this blindness a defect of
personality? This means then that a person has a physical personality and a
spiritual one, with two distinct reckonings. It is a mistake to suppose that the
spirit is a dependent of the body. Can the spirit be sick while the body is
sound or not? This is a question in itself. Those, who deny the genuineness of
the spirit and believe spiritual peculiarities to be the direct influence of the
nervous system, have no belief in the spirit and for them everything is
dependent on the body, According to them if the spirit is sick, it is because
the body is sick, and mental sickness is, in fact, the same as physical
Fortunately, it has been proved to-day that the body may be perfectly sound with
regard to blood composition, nerves, vitamins, etc, and yet, one may be mentally
ill, such as suffering from what they call a "complex". Consequently, the way to
treatment mental illness may not be medicine and drugs at all. Can we find a
drug for someone who is suffering from narcissism, which is a kind of mental
disorder? Can we change a person’s haughtiness into modesty, or his cruelty into
kindness by means of a pill or an injection? It is deprivations, which produce
such illnesses, and cause someone for example not to rest until he takes
What is this feeling of revenge? What is this envy which rouses a person to
dislike other people’s enjoyment of a blessing, and long to deprive them from
it. Such a man is not thinking of having that blessing for himself. The envy of
a sound person always gives priority to his own goal, and this is not a fault.
But desiring harms and defeats for others is an ailment. You find that such
individuals are prepared to hurt themselves wholly in their bid to even
partially harm the envied person.
A historical story is told in this connection. In the time of a caliph, a rich
man bought a slave whom he treated, from the beginning, like a gentleman, giving
him the best of food and clothes, and money exactly like his own child or even
more lavishly. But the slave noticed that his master always felt uneasy.
Eventually he made up his mind to set him free and provide him with some
capital. One night as they were sitting together, the master said: "Do you know
why I have treated you so well?" The slave asked the reason. The master said: "I
have one request to make which if you fulfil, you would enjoy all I have given
and will give you! But if you refuse, I will be discontented with you." The
slave said: "I will obey whatever you ask. You are my benefactor who has given
me my life." The master said: "You must promise me in good faith to do it, for I
am afraid you may refuse it." The slave said:
"I promise to do what you want." The master said: "My proposal is that you must
behead me at a specific time and place." The slave exclaimed: "What? How can I
do that?" The master said: "That is what I desire." The slave said: "That is
impossible." The master said: "I have got your promise. You must do it." One
midnight, he awakened the slave and gave him a sharp knife and a bag full of
money and climbed up a neighbor’s roof, and told the slave to behead him there
and then go wherever he liked. The slave asked the reason for such an act. He
answered: "I hate this one man and prefer death to seeing his face. We have been
rivals but he has gone ahead of me and excels me in everything, and I am burning
with hatred. I desire him to be jailed for this fake murder and this idea is a
relief to me. Everyone knows him to be my rival, and so he will be condemned to
death for this act." The slave said: You seem to be a foolish man and deserve
this death." So he beheaded the man and ran away, His rival was consequently
arrested and imprisoned, but no one believed that he would have killed his rival
on his own roof. It had become a mystery. At last, the slave felt a prick of
conscience, went to the authorities and confessed the truth. When they
understood the matter, they freed both the slave and the neighbor.
This is a fact that envy is a disease. The Qur’an says in Chapter "The Sun"
(Shams), Verses 9 and 10. "He will indeed be successful who purifies it, and he
will indeed fail who corrupts it." Thus, the first proposal of the Qur’an is
purification of the self from ailments, complexes, ignorance, deviations and
metamorphoses. You could have heard that in the past there were people who,
because of excess of sins, were cursed by the Prophets of their time and were
thus metamorphosed, that Is, they were transformed into animals such as a
monkey, a wolf, a bear etc.
One may not become physically metamorphosed, but he may be mentally or
spirituality transformed into an animal the like of which in wickedness and
nastiness may not be found in the world. The Qur’an speaks of those "who are in
worse errors" and who are lower than quadrupeds. How can that happen? Man’s
personality depends on his ethical and spiritual qualities, without which he
would be a beast. Thus, a defective man may be lowered to the level of a
metamorphosed being. Some may think this a fancy, but it is real and true.
Someone said: "We had made a pilgrimage to Mecca along with Imam Sajjad and when
we looked down at the Desert of Arafat it was full of Hajis (pilgrims). There
were so many of them that year. The Imam said: "There is much uproar, but few
are true pilgrims." The man says: "I don’t know how the Imam gave me the
insight, but when he asked me to look down again, I saw a desert full of
animals, like that in a zoo, among whom a few human beings were moving about."
The Imam told him how things looked to those who had a clear sight and were
concerned with the inward concept of things.
This is quite obvious but if our so-called modernized mind does not accept it,
we are at fault. In our own time there have been and are individuals who have
discerned the real character of others that, like animals, knew nothing but
eating, sleeping and sexual intercourse. They had lost their human qualities and
been turned into beasts. We read in the Qur’anic Chapter, the "Great Event" (Naba)
Verse 6. "The day on which the trumpet shall be blown, so you shall come forth
in hosts, and the heaven shall be opened so that it shall be all openings."
Religious leaders have repeatedly said that only one group of people is to be
raised from among the dead in the shape of human beings; others would appear as
animals, tigers, monkeys, scorpions, snakes and ants. Does God do so without a
reason? No, there are reasons. When a human being has done nothing in this world
but to sting and hurt others, he takes his real form in the next world and that
is a scorpion. He who acts like a monkey in this world, will appear as a monkey
in the next world. And a person with a doggish nature will be a dog. Thus, all
people will be raised from the dead according to their intentions, desires, and
true character. Are your desires in this world those of a human being, or an
animal or a bird? You will take the same form on resurrection. That is why we
are forbidden to worship any but God. If we worship anything else, we will have
it with us in the hereafter. If we worship money it becomes a part of our
nature, and as the Qur’an says in Chapter "Immunity" (Baraat), Verse 35 that
molten metal will be with us on resurrection: "And (as for) those who hoard up
gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah’s way, announce to them a painful
chastisement, on the day when it shall be heated in the fire of hell, then their
foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded with it; this is what
you hoarded up for yourselves." Do not say that currency notes have taken the
place of coins; in the next world, these banknotes would be turned into a fire
as scorching as gold and silver coins!
So, a human being with a complex is defective, and one who worships a matter is
imperfect and metamorphosed. Perfection in every kind of creature is different
from perfection in another kind. A perfect human being is different from a
perfect angel, and each has separate degrees of perfection. Those who have told
us of the existence of angels, say that they are created with pure intelligence
and thought in whom the earthly aspect, lusts, anger etc are absent, whereas
animals are wholly earthly, and lack what the Qur’an terms as divine spirit.
But man is a mixture of the two, both angelic and earthly, both high and low.
This is described in a narration in the book "Usul al-Kafi", and Rumi, the poet,
has turned it into a poem the translation of which is as follows:
"A narration says that the Glorious God created three different groups of
creatures: The first group is the angels who are pure intellect, knowledge and
liberality, and know only prostration. They lack every element of greed and
passion, but are pure light, and alive with the love of God. Another group lacks
knowledge altogether, and is fattened like animals in the pasture, They see
nothing but the stable and fodder and are ignorant of both villainy and honor,
The third group are human beings who are half angel and half donkey, the donkey
half is inclined to the low and the other half is inclined to the sublime; one
must see which half wins the day, and which one conquers the other,"
The Qur’an says in Chapter "The Man" (Insan) Verse 2; "Surely we have created
man from a small life-germ uniting’ (itself): We mean to try him, so we have
made him hearing, seeing. Surely we have shown him the way. He may be thankful
This means that he has been granted many talents and left free to show whether
he deserves a reward or punishment by his acts, whereas other creatures do not
possess such deservedness, He must choose his own way and attain perfection
through moderation and equilibrium and by employing all his talents.
A child grows up and is sound in all his organs and limbs, and these develop
harmoniously. But if he grows up cartoon-like, some parts of whom develop to
excess and others not growing at all or growing insufficiently, he cannot attain
perfection. But a harmonious and well-rounded development may result in a
perfect human being.
The Qur’an says in Chapter "The cow"(Baqara), verse 124:
"And when his Lord tried Abraham with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said:
Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Abraham said: And of my offspring? My
covenant does not include the unjust, said He."
Abraham was tested in many ways, including his readiness to sacrifice his son
for God, when a call from God said (the Qur’an, Chapter "The Rangers" (Safat),
"And we called out to him saying: 0 Abraham! You have indeed shown the truth of
the vision." When Abraham successfully passed through various trials, the Qur’an
said about him: Chapter "The Bee", (Nahl) Verse 120:
"Surely Abraham was an exemplar, obedient to Allah, upright, and he was not of
He stood alone fighting against all unbelievers, and it was then that God called
him an Imam, a leader and a model for others to follow. Imam Ali is a perfect
man since all the human values have had their maximum growth in him and in a
You have watched the low and high tide in the sea, which is caused by the
gravitational attraction of the moon. The spirit of man, too, as well as that of
society shows a similar tide, Human beings undergo such ebb and flow, and this
attraction is sometimes to one direction to such an extent that all other values
are forgotten. In this way, they are like defective beings that show growth in
one respect, and lack of it in other respects. Society, too, may lack harmony in
its development; this is true that it is not wholly deviated but it is very
often corrupted in one way or another.
One of the human values confirmed by Islam is devotion, which is communion with
God. Of course, in Islam every act performed for God is devotion. Having a job
and a trade to support oneself and one’s family and to serve society is in
itself a form of devotion. But devotion, in its special sense, is private
communion with God in prayer, hymns, remaining awake for vital acts at nights
etc., all of which are part of religion and can not be omitted. Sometimes, you
see individuals or society being drawn only to one aspect of devotion, and
performing the recommended acts of prayer, ablution etc, all of which, done in
excess, will ruin society.
Sometimes this way of devotion becomes fashionable in an Islamic society, and
once one gets used to it, it is difficult to observe moderation. Such a person
cannot say to himself that God has created him a human being, not an angel, and
as a human being he should develop every aspect of himself harmoniously.
It was once reported to the Prophet that a number of his companions had sunk in
devotion. The Prophet felt uneasy, came to the mosque and shouted it out loud:
"O People, what has happened to some groups who have appeared among my people.
Even I as your Prophet do not show devotion in this way to keep awake all night.
I rest part of the night and attend to my family. I do not observe fast every
day. Those who are following their new way have deviated from my tradition:"
Thus, when the Prophet notices that an Islamic value is about to eliminate other
Islamic values, he combats this trend severely,
Amr ibn Aas had two sons called Abdullah and Muhammad. The former was noble and
advised his father to follow the way of Ali, while the latter, who like his
father loved the world and position, urged him to follow Muawiah. Abdullah was
mostly inclined to devotion. One day, the Prophet met him on the way and said:
"I hear that you spend the whole night in prayer and the whole day fasting." He
replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said: "But I am not so, and I do not
agree with your way."
Sometimes a society is drawn towards asceticism. Asceticism is a fact which is
undeniable, and is a value which must exist in a prosperous society. But when
everything in a society is based on asceticism and nothing else, there is
something wrong with it. Another value is to serve people, and it is fully
supported by Islam, the Prophet and the Qur’an in Chapter "The Cow" (Baghara),
"It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West,
but righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah," and the Verse ends
emphasizing the value of serving God’s creatures. But sometimes people go to
excess and, as the poet Sa’di says: "Devotion is nothing but serving people",
The next step is to negate the value of devotion, asceticism, knowledge or
jihad, all of which are the exalted values for man in Islam.
Today some of our intellectuals imagine that they have found a very lofty
principle called "humanity and humanitarianism". Serving people is fine and we
should serve them. But if we provide them with food and clothes alone, we would
be treating them like animals, especially if we suppose no higher values exist
for them. If service is confined to this, what would be the difference between
Abu Dhar and Muawiah? This is another example of going to excess, similar to the
overvaluing of freedom.
Freedom is among the highest of human values which is above man’s animal nature
and material values. You can see that those who possess humanity are willing to
bear hunger and nakedness, and live under hard conditions, provided they are not
enslaved by another human being and can live freely. A story is told in the book
of "The Mirror of Scholars", about Avicenna who held the rank of a minister for
some time. One day, he was passing through a street with great pomp and show
when he noticed a scavenger removing putrid stuff from a pit. Avicenna heard him
murmuring to himself a couplet meaning that he honored his ‘self’ for finding
his world easy. Avicenna laughed to hear a man who was doing the lowest task so
contently. He drew the vein of his horse called the man to him and remarked
sarcastically: "What a way to choose to honor the "self"! The man on recognizing
Avicenna by his appearance said: "I have chosen this job so that I would not be
the slave of another in the way you are! To enjoy freedom while being a
scavenger is far better than your rank, assets and dependence," It is said that
Avicenna became red in the face with shame and had no answer to give.
According to the worldly and animal aspirations, there is no point in forsaking
the best food, and having servants and all that pomp and show and becoming a
scavenger, and then speaking of freedom. Is freedom something tangible? No, but
for a vigilant conscience, it is so worthy that a man prefers scavenging to
slavery. This value is sometimes forgotten in some societies, but when it is
awakened in them, they claim freedom to be the only value and forget about other
values like justice, wisdom etc. Others may consider love as the only value, and
forget the intellect, as the Gnostics do; while some go to the other extreme,
thinking love to be a fancy, and intellect as the only worthy thing
Love, intellect, justice, freedom, service and devotion are all values. Who is a
perfect human being? One who is an absolute devotee, or ascetic, or freeborn, or
in love, or intelligent? None of these results in a perfect man. But if all
these values are developed in him in a harmonious way, he may be considered
Imam Ali was such a man, In Nahjul-Balagha you meet mostly the eloquent side of
him, and in reading this book, you get different pictures of him. Sometimes in
reading the sermons, you suppose that Avicenna is there lecturing. At other
times, you observe Rumi or Mohyedin Arabi speaking to you. Then you feel the
epic of Ferdowsi, or a man of liberty, or an ascetic or a retiring devotee in a
state of giving discourses. All human aspects show themselves in Ali’s words,
and then you discern how great he is, and how small we are.
In the past and until fifty years ago, our society was inclined, in religious
matters, towards asceticism. Preachers often confined themselves to those
sermons of Nahjul-Balagha which were related to ascetic matters, calling this
world a transient place and the next world eternal, and advising people to
prepare for the hereafter.
The rest of the sermons had no place because the society could not absorb them,
as it had turned to a series of values only. For a period of a hundred years, no
one read the decree of Imam Ali to Malik Ashtar, which is full of social and
political injunctions . There, Ali speaks of an utterance of the Prophet that
"no people can attain the degree of sanctity and freedom from defect until they
reach a position where the weak stand against the strong and claim their right
without stuttering". Fifty years ago the society could not understand this,
because it was a society of a single value, while Ali’s words contain all human
values as shown in his biography and personality.
I do not intend to praise our present society, but fortunately some worthwhile
values have appeared in it. I fear, however that once more they may become
single-dimensional and destroy other values. If we wish to have Imam Ali (as) as
our model and a perfectly well balanced man, this should not happen. He is a man
in whom all human values have developed harmoniously. At night and during the
communion with God, no Gnostic can rival him in his divine ecstasy and his
flight towards Him. He is so deep in his devotion that nothing can divert his
attention, and this divine love seems to have taken him to another world. This
is how he is in the altar of worship at night.
In daytime, he is a different man. Unlike many ascetics, he is cheerful sitting
with his companions and even witty. Amr ibn Aas criticized him and termed him as
unsuitable for the Caliphate since he was so cheerful, as if a caliph must
always look glum to frighten people. In battle too he was cheerful and smiling,
while in the altar he was tearful.
The Qur’an says in Chapter "Muzzamil", Verses 6-7: "Surely, the rising by night
is the firmest way to tread and the most corrective of speech.. Surely, you
have, in the day time, a long occupation."
The night is for worship, and the day for living and mingling with society. The
poet Hafiz is sometimes alluded to a pretext to mislead the young, They say this
great poet was addicted to wine, whereas in reality, his poems are wholly
spiritual and mystical, and his wine is of a spiritual nature. He was a
religious man who was an interpreter of the Qur’an, and, later on, became famous
as a poet. He has expressed the above Verse of the Qur’an in a poem, saying that
daytime is for work and effort, and nighttime for the wine of devotion.
Ali is such a man, and has been recognized in this way for over a thousand
years. The compiler of "Nahjul-Balagha", Sayed Razi, says: "The amazing thing
about this book is that you see Ali in so many different worlds as you read it,
that is in the words of devotion, philosophy, mysticism, military affairs, court
of justice, religious jurisprudence and so on, and he is never absent from any
Safiyedin Hilli, a poet of the sixth century of the Hejira, says about Ali that
he is a collection of all contraries, he is both a ruler and a sage, docile and
brave, poor and generous, gentle and resolute, and a devotee and a man of
action. He is a hero in all human spheres, something that we cannot be, but we
can at least maintain a certain degree of equilibrium among all values to be
called a true Muslim in different walks of life,
Notes:. Chapter A’raf, Verse 179 . Nahjul Balagha, letter 53