AIM LATEST

Were the Policies of Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn different?

Although these two great leaders are, according to the explicit statement of the Holy Prophet (s), rightful Imams, their policies apparently seem different. Some have even said that the difference of opinions of these two brothers was so great that one of them, having 40 000 combatants, accepted the peace offer, while the other, with only 40 friends and companions (other than his relatives) fought the enemy and lost all of them including his suckling child for this cause. However, close investigation proves the contrary, as we see that Imam al-Hasan (a) lived for about nine and a half years during the reign of Mu’awiyah and did not oppose him overtly. After the martyrdom of his brother, Imam al-Husayn (a) also lived for about nine and a half years during the reign of Mu’awiyah and never thought of rising in rebellion against him and did not challenge him.

Although these two great leaders are, according to the explicit statement of
the Holy Prophet (s), rightful Imams, their policies apparently seem different.
Some have even said that the difference of opinions of these two brothers was so
great that one of them, having 40 000 combatants, accepted the peace offer,
while the other, with only 40 friends and companions (other than his relatives)
fought the enemy and lost all of them including his suckling child for this
cause.

However, close investigation proves the contrary, as we see that Imam al-Hasan
(AS) lived for about nine and a half years during the reign of Mu’awiyah and did
not oppose him overtly. After the martyrdom of his brother, Imam al-Husayn (a)
also lived for about nine and a half years during the reign of Mu’awiyah and
never thought of rising in rebellion against him and did not challenge him.

Hence, the main cause of this superficial difference in the policies of the two
Imams (a) lies in the difference of opinion between Mu’awiyah and Yazid, rather
than the difference of opinion of these two great Imams (a).

The policy of Mu’awiyah was not based on lack of discipline and restraint and he
did not deride the religious precepts by its overt opposition.

Mu’awiyah called himself a "companion" of the Holy Prophet (s) and the "writer
of Revelation". Through his sister (who was the wife of the Holy Prophet (s)
and who was Umm al-Mu’minin (the mother of the believers), Mu’awivah was called
"Khal al-Mu’minin" (the maternal uncle of the believers) and was greatly
favoured by the Second Caliph in whom the common people had total confidence and
special attachment.

Furthermore, Mu’awiyah, in a majority of cases, had appointed the Companions of
the Holy Prophet (s) who were respected and honoured by the people (such as Abu
Hurayrah,’ Amr al-‘As, Samrah, Yusr, Al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, and others) as
governors of provinces and had put them in charge of the key positions of the
country. These governors used to work for the favourable opinions of the people
towards Mu’awiyah. Many ahadith were fabricated and narrated among the people
regarding the virtues and the religious immunity of the Companions of the Holy
Prophet (s) and that they were not questionable for whatever they did. Thus
whatever Mu’awiyah did, if corrigible and justifiable at all, it was rectified
and justified by these authorities; otherwise, by giving a great deal of
hush-money, he prevented his opponents from complaining. Where these means and
methods did not work, thousands of innocent people comprising of Shi’ahs
(friends) of ‘Ali (a), other Muslims, and even a great number of the Companions
of the Holy Prophet (s) were killed by these collaborators, partisans, and
"companions" of Mu’awiyah.

Mu’awiyah pretended to be right in whatever he did and accomplished everything
with a special patience and forbearance. With a particular gentleness and
flexibility, he attracted the kindness and obedience of people. Sometimes, he
even heard the curse of people on him and sensed their enmity, but he responded
with cheerfulness and forgiveness and thus pursued his policy in this way.

Apparently, he paid respect to Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and
sent them valuable gifts and souvenirs. On the other hand, he publicly announced
that whoever narrates a hadith concerning the virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt (a),will
have no security of life, reputation, and property; but whoever narrates a
hadith concerning the virtues. Prophet (s) will receive a of the Companions of
the Holy reward.

He gave orders to the orators and preachers to curse Imam ‘Ali (a) from pulpits
used for addressing Muslims. By the order of Mu’awiyah, his hirelings killed the
supporters of Imam ‘Ali (a) wherever they could find them. They went along in
this matter to such an extent that they killed a large number of people who were
the enemies of Imam ‘Ali (a), accusing them of having friendship with the Imam
(a).

It becomes clear from the above description that the rise of Imam al-Hasan (a)
would only have ended to the detriment of Islam and would have had no effect
other than the martyrdom of the Imam (a) and his supporters. And even it was
not unlikely that, in this case, Mu’awiyah might have got killed Imam al-Hasan
(a) through the friends and relatives of the Imam (a) and then, in order to
pacify public opinion, Mu’awivah would have rent (torn) his shirt and mourned
for the Imam (a) and, in seeking vengeance (for this bloodshed), he would have
tried to take his revenge by killing the Shi’ahs, as he later did while dealing
with the case of ‘Uthman.

But the political trend of Yazid had no resemblance with that of his father. He
was a self-admiring and indisciplined youth. He had no logic: other than force.
He gave no importance to public opinion.

During his short-term rule, Yazid at once revealed the damages which were
secretly inflicted on Islam.

In the first year of his rule, Yazid put the family of the Holy Prophet (SA) to
the edge of the sword.

In the second year of his rule, he ruined the city of Madinah and allowed his
troops to transgress upon the honour, life, and property of the people for three
days.

In the third year of his rule, he destroyed Ka’bah.

Owing to the above reasons, the movement of Imam al-Husayn (a) was imprinted on
the minds of the people and its effect grew more profoundly and publicly day by
day. In the beginning, this movement manifested itself in the form of bloody
revolutions. Finally, it attracted a great number of Muslims as the supporters
of truth and reality and as the supporters of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Holy
Prophet (s).

It was because of this reason that Mu’awiyah, in his will to Yazid, had strongly
recommended that Yazid should leave Imam al-Husayn (a) alone and not bother
him; but would the drunkenness and self-admiration of Yazid permit him to
differentiate between his benefit and his loss?

Check Also

Without piety, one’s heart cannot realize the truth

From the words of Ayatollah Khamenei: As long as one is not pious, he or …